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Ethereum’s London hard fork sets ETH on a more deflationary path



Ethereum’s London hard fork sets ETH on a more deflationary path

The London hard fork of Ethereum, which went live on Aug. 5, ushered in a new era for the transition to Ethereum 2.0, a complete proof-of-stake (PoS) blockchain. In fact, the London upgrade is the penultimate step on the way to the final transition to PoS scheduled sometime in 2022. The upgrade got triggered almost on time at 12:33 pm UTC at the block height of 12,965,000.

Along with the highly anticipated Ethereum Improvement Proposal (EIP) 1559, this upgrade brings four other EIPs to the network, EIP-3554, EIP-3541, EIP-3198 and EIP-3529. The main change that EIP-1559 brought is the management of transaction fees on the blockchain. In the previous pricing mechanism, the transaction fees would go to the miner directly, but now, there is a fixed-per-block network fee that is burned. This eventually means a lower revenue from transaction fees for miners.

A representative from ConsenSys, a blockchain technology company backing Ethereum’s infrastructure, told Cointelegraph about the enthusiasm of network users when compared to the initial discontent of the miners:

“Users seem much more supportive of the hard fork because this provides them with more predictable gas fees. As of today, 97,5% of clients are ready for the London hard fork. This is why EIP-1559 became mainstream among the community and is the most important proposal approved by the Ethereum community included in the London Hard Fork.”

However, miners still have an additional stream of revenue over the two Ether (ETH) reward that they receive for every newly minted block. The EIP-1559 also adds the concept of a “tip” to the transaction pricing mechanism. The tip can be seen as a priority fee so that applications and users can choose to pay if they want their transaction to be prioritized by the network.

Kent Barton, head of research and development of ShapeShift, a cryptocurrency trading platform, discussed the impact of EIP-1559 on the dynamics of the community with Cointelegraph, stating: “The reduced miner profitability of 1559 led to some initial opposition from that part of the Ethereum ecosystem. However, there was no realistic alternative, 1559 had wide support from the rest of the community.”

MEV to gain more prominence before the merge

Barton believes that the miners decided to abandon their opposing stance, as a contentious hard fork, in addition to being unpopular, would also trigger a pullback for the price of ETH, ultimately going against their own interests. In response to the reduction in direct revenue miners earn, several mining pools have begun to resort to Miner Extractable Value (MEV) solutions to push their net revenues.

MEV is a metric that measures the profit that a miner, validator, or sequencer can earn, using their ability to benefit from arbitrage by including, excluding, or reordering transactions within mining blocks that are produced. MEV solutions can only be triggered and executed by miners as only they have the power to organize transactions within a block on the network.

Caleb Sheridan, a core developer at the Eden Network, a priority transaction network, spoke with Cointelegraph about MEV, saying, “MEV (Miner Extractable Value) is more important than ever. Miners are finding novel ways to augment their revenue after the reduction faced in EIP-1559. These techniques and tools will find their way to proof-of-stake, where validators will also use them to augment their revenue.”

Sheridan further mentioned that MEV solutions offer onboarded miners increased rewards for “honest participation in the ordering protocol proposed by the network.” This would also keep these solutions relevant for validators after the completion of the PoS transition.

However, it’s important to remember that one of the main aims of the London upgrade through EIP-1559 was to curb the issue of high gas fees that had plagued the network all throughout the bull run from late Q4 2020 to halfway through Q2 2021. Since the London upgrade was triggered on Aug. 5, the gas fees have also shown a spike.

The gas prices have risen 44% from the pre-upgrade levels of 45.77 Gwei on Aug. 4 to a 45 day high of 65.22 Gwei on Aug. 10. Gwei is a quantity used to calculate gas fees. Gwei or a Gigawei is a small unit of Ether, known as the smallest base unit of the token. One gwei is equal to 0.000000001 ETH, or the other way around, 1 ETH is equivalent to 1 billion gwei.

However, this spike in gas fees could just be a function of increased network congestion that the price action of the asset and the upgrade itself attracted. It’s noteworthy that this spike in gas fees is still a lot lower than the gas fees the network charged back in May, the last time ETH traded at its current price range.

These increased gas fees are now burned instead of going to the miners, thus leading to the destruction of some Ether tokens from the network’s economy. This burning impact of the EIP-1559 adds deflationary pressure on the token. The representative of ConsenSys discussed this further, saying:

“Investor sentiment toward ETH as an asset seems to be reacting to the diminishing supply of ETH due to EIP-1559. Already, 23k ETH has been burned, which is slowing the emission rate of new ETH (which is paid in the form of block rewards for new blocks added to the chain).”

At the current rate of burn, 2.3 ETH is destroyed every minute. This means that at the current market value of the token, $10.7 million worth of ETH tokens are burned every day. However, this rate of burn has given way to the “deflationary asset” narrative for Ethereum’s native token. But in reality, this upgrade doesn’t really make Ether a deflationary asset, it just reduces the rate it’s currently inflating at. In fact, Ether will remain inflationary even when the transition to Ethereum 2.0 is complete.

A model made by Justin Drake of the Ethereum Foundation reveals that as a “best guess,” there will be 1,000 ETH issued per day and 6,000 ETH burned in the same period. His model assumes that if more validators join and the staking annual percentage returns (APR)/yield is 6%, the annual decrease in supply will be 1.6 million Ether tokens and hence, reducing the annual supply rate for the asset to 1.4%. This model confirms that the token would still be an inflationary asset, just one with higher deflationary pressure on it.

ETH gains surpass BTC among other metrics

This hard fork for Ethereum has led to enormous gains for its native token. ETH has fluctuated over the $3,000, around 30% off the all-time high of $4,362 it reached on May 12, 2021. The token is trading at levels it was trading in May, before the flash crash of the majority of the crypto market on May 19 — a day that is now known as “Black Wednesday.”

Although Bitcoin (BTC) has also posted impressive gains in the past seven days, Ethereum has outperformed the premier cryptocurrency yet again. The seven-day gains for ETH are at 29.62% as compared to the 21.69% in Bitcoin’s price. Even though the London upgrade is an important step in the Ethereum roadmap, the movement it represents is way larger. It is the impact of institutional investors, nonfungible tokens (NFTs), decentralized finance (DeFi) and the general public’s distrust of centralized finance (CeFi).

Armstrong opined further on this comparison saying that “The London upgrade was an important step in the Ethereum roadmap but its movement against Bitcoin is more than just London: It’s a network effect of institutional investors, NFTs, the DeFi summer and the general public’s distrust of CeFi.” Mike McGlone, a senior commodity strategist at Bloomberg Intelligence has even mentioned that Ethereum could lead the way to Bitcoin hitting $100,000.

Related: Bitcoin dominance on the rise once again as crypto market rallies

The next step for Ethereum would be the final merge to the proof-of-stake, which according to ConsenSys, is “likely to happen in early 2022.” The ConsenSys representative also revealed that some analysts are expecting that staking payouts will more than double to $20 billion soon and they will double again to hit $40 billion by 2025.

Whether these predictions come to fruition or not, it is evident from the market sentiment that despite the slump in the market between June and July, Ether is cementing its place further as the cryptocurrency with utility, especially with network upgrades like the London hard fork spurring its growth by addressing pre-existing pain points like gas fees.

The community is seemingly responding well to what ConsenSys founder and Ethereum co-founder Joseph Lubin has called the introduction of ultrasound money. Even Kevin O’Leary of Shark Tank fame has also further perpetuated the ultrasound money narrative, citing the lack of a supply floor as a reason.

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BTC, ETH, XRP, ZEN, SNX, WAVES, AVA – Technical Analysis Sept 16



BTC, ETH, XRP, ZEN, SNX, WAVES, AVA – Technical Analysis Sept 16

Bitcoin (BTC) and Ethereum (ETH) have broken out from descending parallel channels.

XRP (XRP) is trading above the $1.05 horizontal support area.

Horizen (ZEN) is trying to break out above the $108 resistance area.

Synthetix (SNX) has broken out from an ascending triangle.

Waves (WAVES) has moved above the $26.80 resistance area.

Travala.com (AVA) has broken out from a descending resistance line.


BTC has been moving upwards since Sept 14. On Sept 15, it managed to break out from a descending parallel channel and accelerated. 

The upward move is supported by both the RSI and MACD, which are increasing. The former has even crossed above 50. 

BTC is approaching the 0.618 Fib retracement resistance level at $49,050. However, due to a confluence of Fib levels, it’s possible that it could increase all the way to $50,750.


On Sept 15, ETH broke out from a descending parallel channel that had been in place since Sept 7. It has been increasing at an accelerated rate since. 

The upward move is supported by both the increasing MACD and RSI readings. 

However, ETH has reached a confluence of Fib resistance levels between $3,625 and $3,635. These levels are the 1:1.61 length of waves A:C and the 0.618 Fib retracement resistance level (white).


On Aug 13, XRP broke out from the $1.05 horizontal resistance area. It proceeded to reach a high of $1.41 on Sept 6 before dropping sharply the next day. 

Following this, it validated the $1.05 area as support. 

However, even though XRP is trading above the $1.05 support area, indicators are bearish. The MACD and RSI are both decreasing.


ZEN has been increasing above an ascending support line since July 16. On Sept 6, it was rejected by the $108 horizontal resistance area and returned to validate the support line once again. 

However, ZEN rebounded and made another breakout attempt on Sept 15. 

Despite the strong bounce, ZEN failed to break out. In addition, both the RSI and MACD have created bearish divergences. 

Therefore, at the current time, we cannot determine if ZEN will be able to move above this resistance.


SNX began trading inside an ascending triangle on May 21. After several unsuccessful attempts, it managed to break out on Sept 15. 

The breakout is supported by the increasing MACD and RSI values. 

The closest resistance area is found at $23.80.


WAVES has been increasing above an ascending support line since July 20. 

On Aug 31, it broke out above the $26.80 resistance area. 

After this, it returned to validate the area as support, also touching the ascending support and Supertrend lines (green icon). It has been moving upwards since. 

The closest resistance area is at the all-time high level near $38. 


On Aug 14, AVA broke out from a descending resistance line that had been in place since April and reached a high of $5.40 on Sept 6. 

However, it was rejected by the $5.40 resistance area and fell. 

It then found support at $3.50, creating two lower wicks. In addition to this, the RSI has generated a hidden bullish divergence, which is a common sign of trend continuation.

Therefore, AVA could be on its way to revisit the $5.40 resistance area.

For BeInCrypto’s latest Bitcoin (BTC) analysis, click here.


All the information contained on our website is published in good faith and for general information purposes only. Any action the reader takes upon the information found on our website is strictly at their own risk.

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AMC to Support Ethereum, Litecoin, and Bitcoin Cash Following BTC Adoption



AMC to Support Ethereum, Litecoin, and Bitcoin Cash Following BTC Adoption

AMC Theatres will accept payments in Ethereum, Litecoin, and Bitcoin Cash by the end of 2021, in addition to bitcoin.

AMC Theatres, the world’s largest theater chain, has announced that it will accept more cryptocurrencies for payment by the end of 2021. The cryptocurrencies that it will support include bitcoin, ethereum, litecoin, and bitcoin cash. This marks yet another notable adoption for the cryptocurrency market, which has had a stellar 2021.

AMC expands crypto payment options

The company’s CEO, Adam Aron, tweeted the news on Sept 16, saying that crypto could be used to pay for online ticket and concession payments by the year’s end. AMC revealed that it would accept bitcoin in August 2021, to much fanfare.

This year has already seen Tesla accept bitcoin as payments for its electric vehicles, though it suspended that later. PayPal has also expanded into cryptocurrencies and is ramping up its support for the market.

The news of AMC Theatres accepting cryptocurrency payments will please investors, as the chain is a notable brand with some clout. The firm has also come to the attention of the public lately for its support from within Reddit’s wallstreetbets community. While the support was not quite as strong as it was for GameStop, those retail investors have helped drive the price of AMC’s stock up.

In short, the acceptance of crypto payments should stir further interest from a community that is already knowledgeable about crypto. Incidentally, GameStop also announced a foray into the blockchain and crypto space when it announced that it was working on a series of NFTs.

Bitcoin and crypto steadily seeing greater adoption

The crypto world has been subject to a lot of good news in terms of adoption this year. The support coming for crypto payments has been varied, with entities in a highly varied set of industries taking the step. The signs have been very optimistic at the retail level.

The travel industry can benefit a great deal from bitcoin payments — and a luxury hotel in Switzerland has gone to facilitate that. Switzerland, which is known for its hub of crypto companies and entrepreneurs, has over 85,000 merchants supporting crypto payments.

Other established companies supporting crypto payments include auction house Lloyd’s. Auction houses have been very interested in blockchain technology, particularly NFTs. Many of them have conducted auctions for NFTs, selling them for many millions.


All the information contained on our website is published in good faith and for general information purposes only. Any action the reader takes upon the information found on our website is strictly at their own risk.

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El Salvador’s Chivo Bitcoin Wallet Crosses 500,000 Users



El Salvador’s Chivo Bitcoin Wallet Crosses 500,000 Users

El Salvador’s Chivo bitcoin wallet has already crossed 500,000 users, as revealed by local news reports.

El Salvador’s digital bitcoin wallet Chivo has already hit half a million users, according to reports from local media. The country introduced the wallet on Sept 7.

Users receive $30 in bitcoin when they download the wallet for the first time as an incentive. As of Sept 7, the country had purchased 400 bitcoins for its coffers — which by all accounts is ambivalent in terms of its success.

El Salvador’s bitcoin integration is off to a somewhat rocky start, as there have been several protests against its adoption. Protests have come from both opposition forces and citizens — with the latter marching in the streets and even filing a lawsuit.

The country has used a number of measures to incentivize people to use bitcoin. Foreigners, for example, are exempt from paying capital gains tax on their bitcoin profits. In addition, they receive permanent residency if they decide to move and have an entrepreneurial venture.

Source: /u/kiarga

Some El Salvadorians have taken to Reddit to talk about the general sentiment surrounding bitcoin. The country celebrated its Independence Day on Sep. 15, and many protested against the current government in the streets. News broke that vandals destroyed bitcoin ATMs in the country, which is further evidence of displeasure with the new law.

One Redditor spoke about bitcoin further cementing existing inequalities — a concern that was one of the major issues citizens have with the government. They also note that the bitcoins in the Chivo wallet could be seized by the government.

One thing that cannot be denied is the fact that BTC payments do indeed reduce costs for cross-border payments. Other countries in the region are keeping a close eye on the development, which is the first of its kind.

Will more countries follow?

It’s unlikely that a large swathe of countries will follow El Salvador’s lead. Most governments are determined to release their own central bank digital currency (CBDC). Those that have accepted cryptocurrencies as an asset class have done so begrudgingly and are laboring to form a regulatory framework.

The idea of making bitcoin legal tender has been rebutted by China, India, and Russia. With important economies dismissing the asset as having such an important role in the economy, most other countries will likely take the same position.

Having said that, the El Salvador bitcoin experiment could turn up some surprising results. If bitcoin does indeed become the medium for cross-border transactions, then this could encourage more countries to do the same.


All the information contained on our website is published in good faith and for general information purposes only. Any action the reader takes upon the information found on our website is strictly at their own risk.

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