People ask me, “Can you explain why you dislike Ethereum and recommend against buying or holding it?”
Here is my explanation.
Imagine starting a new community. The community will be called “Ethereum”. A number of promises will be made to encourage people to join this community:
There will be a number of different roles in this community.
There will be a working class — a group that does the work the community needs to operate it. They will get paid for their work, but they will also have to pay their own expenses. Let’s call this group the miners.
There will be a wealthy class — the group that participates in the founding. Let’s call this group the initial coin offering participants.
There will be a ruling class — a group that makes the rules. This will be a small group. Let’s call this group the core developers, and/or the Foundation, and/or Vitalik. This is a subset of the wealthy class.
And there will also be a class that are subjects of the rules and the results of the work. This last will be the most numerous. We’ll call this group the Etherians.
Now, when this new community is constituted, certain promises are made. One of the promises made is that the need for the working class, the miners, will go away at some point in the near future. This promise is even enforced by a rule that makes work impossible after a time. This is Ethereum’s promise of a switch from Proof-of-Work to Proof-of-Stake, enforced by a rule called the “difficulty bomb” which would bring about an “ice age”. This code, to eventually make mining impossible, is put into the constitution, or code, of the community.
Another promise made is that the computer code in this community is its law. “Code is law.”
Now it so happens that early on, a mistake is made and a lot of the wealthy class’ money risks being lost in that mistake. This is the infamous case of “the DAO”, a smart contract that raised $150 million worth of Eth from its early investors and which was hacked to have most of its money drained by the hacker. Excuses are made and explanations are given as to why in this particular case an exception needs to be made to the “Code is Law” promise, but that this exception will be a one-off. The change is made to reverse the mistake: The ruling class proposes changes to the rules so that the wealthy class will benefit at the expense of the person who took advantage of the mistake. It seems mostly reasonable at the time.
A few people, mostly from the class of subjects, the Ethereans, complain that the “code is law” promise should not be broken. However, they are told to leave the community and create a new one called “Ethereum Classic”, which they do.
Meanwhile, in the Ethereum community, the ruling class enacts new rules (a hard fork) to undo the mistake. The wealthy class get all their money back and are granted an exemption from the enforcement of the law of “Code is Law” for this one instance, with the promise of never doing it again.
A little while later it is determined that some rules need to be changed for maintenance and optimization purposes. Another hard fork. This was not unexpected.
But at the same time something previously unexpected does happen:
One of the promises made when the community was constituted was that the working class would be paid five units of currency for each unit of work they completed. That is 5 Eth per block. But the ruling class now feels that’s too much because it amounts to a lot of value for the work. So the ruling class changes the rule of 5 Eth per block to 4 Eth per block. This reduces the working class’ compensation by 20%.
Some people, particularly those in the working class, complain. They are told they can take this pay cut or leave and go work someplace else. The work is still profitable, however and many remain.
Now, it is not just the ruling class alone that issues this ultimatum of ‘take the pay cut or leave’. Most everyone else in both the wealthy class and class of subjects likes the change too. Why? This change reduces the creation of new currency units that they weren’t themselves earning (because they weren’t doing any work). Thus, it gives them a larger share of the total monetary pie after the change than they would have had if the change didn’t take place.
No moral questions are seriously considered about whether changing this rule is a breach of the promise made at the time of the constitution of the community.
The change is made.
Time passes. In fact, the time of detonation for the “difficulty bomb” which would lead to an “ice age” is drawing near. If the bomb activated the work would become impossible and the entire community would halt. Everyone agrees this would be bad.
The ruling class, however, has failed to engineer the rules that would deliver on their promise to activate the switch to Proof-of-Stake. They cannot keep their original promise.
The ruling class proposes a solution. The solution does not include them sacrificing their wealth as punishment for failing to have delivered on their promise. The solution also does not remove the difficulty bomb from the code base. The solution only delays the difficulty bomb.
The ruling class claims something to the effect of “by delaying the difficulty bomb we reaffirm our promise to deliver Proof-of-Stake by creating another deadline for ourselves through the postponement of the ice age.”
Some people accept this statement at face value. Others have doubts. “What if the deadline is missed again?” they ask. “Won’t you just delay the difficulty bomb again?”
They are given the now-becoming-usual ultimatum, “If you don’t like it, leave.”
A hard fork to delay the difficulty bomb is enacted.
Time passes. More hard forks are proposed and enacted for the very same reasons as before.
This time the working class has their pay reduced from 4 Eth to 3 Eth per block, a 25% pay cut. Miners now earn 40% less per block than at the time of the community’s constitution, which promised that code was law, and which the ruling class later said they would break only once, for what was an especially good reason. But the code is law promise has now been broken so many times people expect it to occur at regular intervals and even worry that “progress” is slowing down if there aren’t frequent enough hard forks (to break that promise yet again).
Predictably, the deadline is missed again for proof of stake and no penalty is paid by the ruling class for missing it again. In fact, that reduction of the working class’ earnings is what pays for pacifying the class of subjects who are starting to make demands of the ruling class to deliver on their promise. The ruling class is happy to make a sacrifice of the working class’ money. After all, it’s not their money being sacrificed.
The wealthy class and class of subjects accepts this sacrifice without asking the moral question of “Is it right for the workers in our community to pay the price for the failings of the rulers in our community?”
Now, I want to pause here before continuing this story, because at this point, any reader should be able to reflect and say, “Something here seems awfully similar to the system that crypto-currency was meant to fix. It was meant to eliminate rulers. It was meant to make everyone accountable for their actions. It was meant to reward the intelligent, the hard working and the capable, and not reward the incompetent, or the makers-yet-breakers of promises. However, this repeat of the broken old system seems to be playing out again.” Of course, that kind of reflection doesn’t take place if you’re only in this for the gains and not for repairing anything about our financial system.
More time passes. Progress towards Proof-of-Stake, the promise that the system will work with no work, is much slower than originally expected. The ruling class assures the other classes that progress is happening. They launch a partial solution to pacify the other classes. This pacification solution pays people to stake their coins, but does not do away with the dependency on proof-of-work. Paying for stake is welcomed by the wealthy class. It is, after all, getting paid for being wealthy, so why would they object?
Under this new arrangement, work is still needed. However, it’s just that the rich now get issued new units for the cost-less act of being richwhile the workers only get paid for the costly act of doing work.
With everyone getting paid now in newly issued units (everyone except the poorer people in the class of subjects) concerns about inflation arise.
There are no actual delivery dates for the end of Proof-of-Work, and if there were, nobody would believe them by now anyways.
There is no concern about a difficulty bomb, which nobody cares about any more because they already know that it would just get delayed again if it kicked in.
Everybody knows that the ruling class will not be held to account.
However, there is this concern about inflation.
So the ruling class proposes a solution. It’sone that has worked before: Cut the pay of the working class again. It turns out the working class not only earned rewards of newly issued Eth, but they also earned fees that users would pay for getting their transactions into blocks. The ruling class proposes that a portion of the working class’ fees be burned. The fees will still be paid by users, but the miners will not receive the fee. It will instead be sacrificed. By burning the working class’ money, the ruling class and wealthy class end up with a larger piece of the overall pie. It’s ingenious. Evil, but ingenious.
Now, by this point it is quite clear that the ruling class turns out to be better at delivering narratives with cool names like “ice age” and “world computer” than they are at delivering actual code that corresponds with their promises. They do not disappoint in that regard. They call the burning of the working class’ earnings “Ultra-sound Money” as a great sounding term combining “sound money” — being good money that made a distinctive sound you could hear when that money was bounced on a table— and the word “ultra-sound” — being sounds you can’t hear. Well, it sounds better when you don’t analyze it this way. Like everything in Ethereum, it sounds better when you don’t analyze it at all.
And that brings us to the present.
We have a community where the ruling class has failed to deliver on their promises time and time again. Sound familiar?
We have a community where those who do the work have been made to pay, time and time again, for those who do no work. Sound familiar?
We have a ruling class whose solutions to every problem, even if it is them that caused the problem, never involve them owning up or paying any price for the solution. Sound familiar?
We have complicity in the classes that benefit from the decisions of the ruling class at the expense of the working class. Sound familiar?
It sounds just like the corrupt fiat money system we’re trying to escape.
How did we get here — right back to the very system we were trying to escape from? I think it was these factors.
First, the initial coin offering, or pre-sale or pre-mine, created a class with the vast majority of wealth.
Then, the DAO hard fork was intended to fix a naive mistake made by that rich class. However, the controversy it created appears to have set a precedent that the rulemakers can issue ultimatums to the rule-takers: “Take it or leave”.
Next, the rule-makers were never held to account financially for failing to deliver on their promises.
Instead, the ruling class repeatedly offered up the working class’ money as a sacrifice to appease people in the other classes who felt they were due some reparations for the ruling class’ broken promises.
Those people in the other classes accepted those offers of sacrifice.
This is why I dislike Ethereum. I condemn it for repeatedly breaking its promises, thus making it entirely unreliable. I condemn it for making victims out of the only group in their community who actually delivered on their responsibilities.
As a Bitcoiner I find these actions intolerable and unacceptable. I know none of them would ever be accepted in Bitcoin. We wouldn’t dare permit the installation of a bomb that could destroy the system, let alone leave one small group in charge of it. We would never break the code-is-law promise for the purpose of enriching one class at the expense of another. We would never make promises based on what sounds clever. We would simply never break the promises that constituted our community, because the whole attraction of it is that is doesn’t have a ruling class to take advantage of other classes.
I’m also curious about what all those people who repeatedly backed the ruling class think will eventually happen to them. How would they answer the questions “What do you think is going to happen to you if the working class is actually eliminated? Do you think the ruling class will suddenly stop seeking victims’ to enrich themselves?” After all, the ruling class has the power to do anything. They can accelerate the issuance of Eth to themselves. They can make the money even more ultra-sound — ultra-supersonic — by burning existing coins (Ethereans’ coins, not theirs of course) for whatever reasons they claim are good for the community. The sky is the limit for how they can control the currency. Any abuses that a central bank digital currency is vulnerable to, so too is Ethereum, especially based on the history of its ruling class intervening to change the rules to always make things better for themselves and keep them in power.
The truth that everyone should now see is that Ethereum is not a decentralized peer-to-peer system. It is a system with an unaccountable ruling class exploiting the working class, making promises they can’t keep, while spinning a wonderful narrative about how they are solving all the problems — a combination of problems they created, problems that don’t exist, and problems they don’t actually know how to solve.
It would be fine to leave it at that, even setting aside the countless fraudulent scams that have been perpetrated on Ethereum, but for just one thing.
That one thing is that this truth about Ethereum is swept under the rug while an entirely different tale is told to newcomers. As such, newcomers to Ethereum have repeatedly been hit with a broad variety of scams.These include a range of ICOs that have been subsequently found to be illegal to ones that were outright frauds. “Smart” contracts that lack smarts and are exploited and drained or “rug-pulled” are so common that many don’t even make the news anymore. Garbage is sold as art. Art that can’t be owned is positioned as that which can be. Lies are told about what is on the blockchain and ownable and what isn’t.
Ethereum’s promises change frequently as new marketing campaigns come up, like the “Ultrasound Money” one, for example. But the tale never involves this clear history of the ruling class helping the wealthy class at the expense of the working class with everyone else standing by and enjoying the spoils.
If none of this concerns you, I suppose you can take it. I would encourage you to seek some kind of moral counselling, but you don’t have to, and you can accept trying to be a winner in this regime. So you can take it, or, if it does bother you, you can leave it. This at least is a promise Ethereum makes and keeps.
PostNote: This article pairs well with my piece on Bitcoiners having integrity. What it boils down to is that there is no integrity in Ethereum and nothing but integrity in Bitcoin:
The Sydney, Australia-based Immutable created a platform on top of Ethereum to monetize NFTs in games, and it is also the creator of the Gods Unchained NFT-based collectible card game. NFTs use the transparent and secure ledger of blockchain to uniquely identify digital items. That means that rare digital items can be sold for higher prices in NFT-based games.
The company also recently unveiled it will issue a $GODS token. It will give them out or sell them to players so they can have a voice in how the studio runs the game. At launch, $GODS will operate as a utility and governance token, giving holders a voice in the digital space, as well as active staking opportunities that allow players to earn rewards through gameplay campaigns.
Over time, functionality of the $GODS will expand to embed the token within Gods Unchained’s “play-to-earn” game loops, enabling players to earn $GODS tokens as rewards when people play the game. If those tokens increase in value, the players can sell them for their own profit. I call this the Leisure Economy, where we all get paid to play games. Immutable hopes the biggest game companies will adopt NFTs, which have been popular with crypto enthusiasts but are somewhat confusing for ordinary gamers.
Three top investment pros open up about what it takes to get your video game funded.
“It’s exciting,” said Robbie Ferguson, the cofounder of Immutable, in an interview with GamesBeat. “The biggest thing we’re looking to build is a set of tools that mainstream developers can use to build NFT games without ever having to worry about blockchain.”
The tools include ways to enable credit card purchases, anti-money laundering services, know-your-customer regulatory compliance, and more when it comes to implementing NFTs in games.
“We can provide for the end-to-end needs of the mainstream client,” he said.
Published by Dapper Labs, NBA Top Shot has surpassed $750 million in sales in just a year. And an NFT digital collage by the artist Beeple sold at Christie’s for $69.3 million. Investors are pouring money into NFTs, and some of those investors are game fans. The weekly revenues for NFTs peaked in May and then crashed, but in August those revenues were bigger than ever.
But there are drawbacks too in numerous scams where people steal art and sell it as their own NFTs.
Noting the spike in NFT sales, Ferguson said, “Look, I think we’re in a hype cycle. At the moment, I think people are buying these entities on an expectation of profit. It’s going to crash, crash in a big way. It’s a speculator boom. Every boom is good because it brings a lot of adoption. You can’t really have perfect speculation. You’re always worried it’s going to go up or down. The thing I am excited about is the transition into utility-based NFTs.”
He believes his company has been able to successfully raise money because it is focusing on infrastructure, not fad-like digital items that could go out of fashion easily. It’s also making games that people enjoy playing, like Gods Unchained. Building games like that helps the company understand the needs and requirements for the infrastructure, he said.
“We’ve been through two bear markets as a company already, so we’re ready for anything,” Ferguson said.
Immutable X protocol
Above: The $GODS Unchained token.
Image Credit: Immutable
Immutable has also created Immutable X, a Layer-2 scalability protocol for NFTs on Ethereum. That means it enables transactions at a much faster rate than was intended on Ethereum, and it doesn’t use as much computing power and so doesn’t have as many environmental effects as transactions on top of Ethereum normally do. On top of that, it doesn’t incur the high “gas fees,” or computing fees, for users. Those fees are zero, and yet they don’t compromise on security because they take advantage of the underlying secure Ethereum platform.
In an earlier interview, Ferguson said that in 2020 Immutable found the solution on the crypto frontier with StarkWare, which tapped the benefit of using the Ethereum cryptocurrency and its security without incurring huge fees. Immutable X is built on top of Starkware’s “Layer 2 scaling” technology. The bottom line is that users don’t have to trust in Immutable lasting permanently in order to keep owning their NFTs. They can just trust in Ethereum. Immutable X’s mainnet is now available as a Layer 2 solution for NFTs on Ethereum.
“At the end of the day, this security is the whole point,” Ferguson said. “Otherwise, you might as well just make a new centralized database.
“What our company has become focused on is to scale these games and these applications in a way that is best for users, and ultimately, still decentralized, while still being super easy for mainstream applications to use. That’s why we decided to build Immutable X. We spent a very long time searching for a scaling solution. We’ve got to make the proposition of NFT ownership available to everyone.”
Other solutions to Ethereum are creating alternative, faster cryptocurrencies with different methods of reaching a consensus. But these alternatives aren’t as popular as Ethereum. Another solution is to create a side chain, with a different kind of processing for transactions. But Ferguson said those solutions can fail because their security isn’t still as strong as Ethereum’s. If the security fails, then so does the authenticity of the NFT, and that would be disastrous, Ferguson said.
Immutable X can handle 9,000 transactions per second, much more than Ethereum, which is the most popular blockchain. That puts Immutable on a scale to support games with millions of players. As Ethereum network traffic has increased significantly, transactions are slower and costlier to execute, and security is increasingly important. Over time, Ferguson said that should grow.
Immutable X was created with these pain points in mind. The scaling protocol was built with StarkWare’s ZK-rollup, capable of massive scalability without compromising security. Last month, $600 million was hacked on less secure scaling solutions which rely on centralized “bridges” for their connection to Ethereum, rather than zero-knowledge proofs, the company said.
Immutable X has a marketplace for players in games such as Gods Unchained to buy and sell the items they have collected. Games such as Immutable’s upcoming Guild of Guardians will mint its NFTs on the carbon-neutral Immutable X platform.
Above: Gods Unchained pays to play.
Image Credit: Immutable
All of these things — the games, the players, the protocol, and the marketplace — have made the company valuable. Bitkraft Ventures and King River Capital led the round, with participation from Prosus Ventures, Galaxy Interactive, Fabric Ventures, Alameda Research, AirTree Ventures, Reinventure, Apex Capital, and VaynerFund.
The funding will be used to expand the global engineering and sales team, and strengthen key partnerships with gaming companies. It will also be used to scale the growth of Immutable’s in-house published NFT games, Gods Unchained and Guild of Guardians.
Ferguson said his company has 120 employees and hopes to grow to 200 within six months.
As to the competition, Ferguson noted there are other major blockchains with an eye on NFTs, including Flow (owned by Dapper Labs), Polygon, Solana, and others who are “coming out of the woodwork.” He said this is a good thing because “the most important mission that we’re doing is we want to make digital worlds real. And that means giving people ownership of their stuff in a secure decentralized blockchain. And so as long as the winning solution is something that’s actually secure and decentralized, I’m happy.”
He noted that Immutable is in a good position because it has been working on its tech for more than two years.
Above: Guild of the Guardians has teamed up with esports organization NRG.
Image Credit: Immutable
From collectible trading card NFTs to fashion NFTs, Immutable’s technology partnerships span across multiple industries.
Immutable’s own Gods Unchained is led by Chris Clay, the former game director of Magic the Gathering Arena, and Immutable is also making Guild of the Guardians.
Other notable projects include:
OpenSea (NFT marketplace)
Mintable (NFT marketplace)
RTFKT studios (fashion NFT artists)
Ecomi/VeVe Collectibles (licensed collectibles)
Medal.TV (world’s largest gaming clips website)
HighRise (social sandbox)
TokenTrove (collectibles marketplace)
SuperFarm (defi NFT farm)
Epics.GG (whitelabel marketplace platform for NFTs)
Illuvium (auto battler RPG)
Lucid Sight (MLB Champions Baseball, Crypto Space Commander)
War Riders (post-apocalyptic MMO)
Mintable (NFT marketplace)
There are 10 or so major partnerships with game companies already announced, and that should expand in the coming months, he said.
“The most exciting thing by far is the interest from the massive game companies,” said Ferguson. “They say they have an NFT strategy that has been accelerated by three or four years. We see all of the major game studios around the world have dedicated teams to work out what their NFT strategy is, and some are building defensive strategies. We’re going in aggressively and saying we can be the market leader in NFT experiences for gamers.”
GamesBeat’s creed when covering the game industry is “where passion meets business.” What does this mean? We want to tell you how the news matters to you — not just as a decision-maker at a game studio, but also as a fan of games. Whether you read our articles, listen to our podcasts, or watch our videos, GamesBeat will help you learn about the industry and enjoy engaging with it.
How will you do that? Membership includes access to:
Newsletters, such as DeanBeat
The wonderful, educational, and fun speakers at our events
Special members-only interviews, chats, and “open office” events with GamesBeat staff
Chatting with community members, GamesBeat staff, and other guests in our Discord
PayPal is “exploring” the idea of allowing its users to trade individual stocks. Per CNBC, the company recently hired TradeKing co-founder Richard Hagen to head up a new unit at the company called Invest at PayPal. “Leading PayPal’s efforts to explore opportunities in the consumer investment business,” Hagan says of his new job on his LinkedIn profile. The outlet reports PayPal has also had discussions with potential brokerage partners.
Moving into retail trading wouldn’t be out of character for PayPal. The company has spent much of the last year expanding into the cryptocurrency market. It all started last October when PayPal announced it would let US users buy, sell and hold Bitcoin, Ethereum, Bitcoin Cash and Litecoin. PayPal CEO Dan Schulman also recently told investors the company could partner with different financial institutions to expand the number of services it offers. He even mentioned “investment capabilities” as one possibility. Either way, it’s a move that would make sense in the context of all the recent interest in retail trading that came out of the GameStop saga.
A PayPal spokesperson declined to comment on the report.
Should PayPal decide to offer stock trading, it may take some time before it’s available to US users. CNBC reports PayPal is unlikely to roll out the service this year. And if the company decides it wants to operate as its own brokerage firm, it would need approval from the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA). That’s a process that can take more than eight months.
All products recommended by Engadget are selected by our editorial team, independent of our parent company. Some of our stories include affiliate links. If you buy something through one of these links, we may earn an affiliate commission.
LHR is designed to foil Ethereum miners and get more GeForce graphics cards in the hands of gamers. Here’s what you need to know.
Today’s Best Tech Deals
Picked by PCWorld’s Editors
Top Deals On Great Products
Picked by Techconnect’s Editors
It’s a tough time to be a PC gamer. A crippling GPU shortage has made buying the best graphics cards next to impossible, and when you can find a GPU, it’s usually at an exorbitant markup. Making matters worse, crypto currencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum have been absolutely booming throughout 2021, driving hordes of GPU miners to gobble up what graphics cards they can find to mine cryptocoins and turn a nice profit, sometimes in “farms” composed of rows of toiling GPUs.
To help combat the dire GPU availability situation faced by gamers, Nvidia introduced Lite Hash Rate (LHR) technology that put strict limits on the mining performance of select GPUs, ostensibly to get more graphics cards into the hands of gamers. Here’s a rundown of what LHR does, which graphics cards include the technology, if gaming performance is impacted (spoiler: nope), and everything else you need to know.
What is Nvidia Lite Hash Rate technology?
First things first—what is LHR? Nvidia LHR graphics cards detect when they’re being used for Ethereum (ETH) cryptocurrency mining and automatically halve the “hash rate.” Without diving too deeply into the weeds, this makes LHR GPUs less profitable for potential mining purchases due to their higher power draw relative to the now lower hash rate. The idea is that if LHR GPUs aren’t profitable for miners, they will be purchased by gamers instead.
Will the limiter’s effectiveness hold long term? Nobody knows. Recent news indicates that up to 70 percent of a LHR GPU’s mining performance has now been unlocked with NBMiner, up from the 50 percent that LHR restricts them to out of the box. Crypto is big business these days, and ambitious miners will strive to crack Nvidia’s protections to eke out more profits.
What GeForce GPUs have LHR?
Here are the GeForce graphics cards that include LHR technology.
Nvidia applied LHR to most of its RTX 30-series lineup in the middle of May 2021. If you already own an RTX 3060 Ti, RTX 3070, or RTX 3080 created before the manufacturing change, their mining performance will not be limited in any way. (That’s why Nvidia’s own limited-run Founders Edition models don’t support LHR—they were all made long before Nvidia introduced its limiter.) All GeForce GPUs made after the switchover include LHR technology by default. Well, almost all—the work-hard-play-hard GeForce RTX 3090 never got LHR and all models offer full hash rate performance.
How do I know if I have a LHR GeForce graphics card?
Regardless of which model RTX 30-series card you buy, you’ll know that you’re purchasing an LHR GPU because the box will identify it as “LHR” or “Lite Hash Rate” in some way. AMD’s rival Radeon graphics cards currently do not have any similar restrictions on hash rate.
Does LHR affect gaming performance?
If you’re a gamer, don’t worry about Nvidia’s Lite Hash Rate technology. It does not affect gaming performance whatsoever as far as we know. This is strictly a hash rate limiter.
What does LHR mean for resale value?
Resale value on LHR graphics cards may go either way. Some people may value these models more because LHR indicates a graphics card probably wasn’t for mining. Miners will value them less, on the other hand, due to their decreased performance relative to the price.
If you’re a miner, you probably want to avoid LHR GPUs unless their restrictions become further unlocked. That said, if crypto mining profitability increases, these may still be viable for miners even with decreased performance.
Note: When you purchase something after clicking links in our articles, we may earn a small commission. Read our affiliate link policy for more details.
Thiago Trevisan is a PC enthusiast with a passion for tinkering with everything from the latest CPUs and GPUs to water cooled gaming rigs. Originally a classical pianist, he now also runs the YouTube channel Classical Technology.
Analytical cookies are used to understand how visitors interact with the website. These cookies help provide information on metrics the number of visitors, bounce rate, traffic source, etc.
1 year 24 days
This cookie is set by Google and stored under the name dounleclick.com. This cookie is used to track how many times users see a particular advert which helps in measuring the success of the campaign and calculate the revenue generated by the campaign. These cookies can only be read from the domain that it is set on so it will not track any data while browsing through another sites.
This cookie is installed by Google Analytics. The cookie is used to calculate visitor, session, campaign data and keep track of site usage for the site's analytics report. The cookies store information anonymously and assign a randomly generated number to identify unique visitors.
This cookie is used by Google Analytics to understand user interaction with the website.
This cookie is installed by Google Analytics. The cookie is used to store information of how visitors use a website and helps in creating an analytics report of how the website is doing. The data collected including the number visitors, the source where they have come from, and the pages visted in an anonymous form.
Advertisement cookies are used to provide visitors with relevant ads and marketing campaigns. These cookies track visitors across websites and collect information to provide customized ads.
This domain of this cookie is owned by agkn. The cookie is used for targeting and advertising purposes.
The cookie is set by CasaleMedia. The cookie is used to collect information about the usage behavior for targeted advertising.
This cookie is set by Casalemedia and is used for targeted advertisement purposes.
This cookie is set by Casalemedia and is used for targeted advertisement purposes.
The cookie is set by CasaleMedia. The cookie is used to collect information about the usage behavior for targeted advertising.
1 year 24 days
Used by Google DoubleClick and stores information about how the user uses the website and any other advertisement before visiting the website. This is used to present users with ads that are relevant to them according to the user profile.
The cookie is set by pubmatic.com for identifying the visitors' website or device from which they visit PubMatic's partners' website.
This cookie is set by pubmatic.com for the purpose of checking if third-party cookies are enabled on the user's website.
1 year 1 month
This cookie is associated with Quantserve to track anonymously how a user interact with the website.
This cookie is set by doubleclick.net. The purpose of the cookie is to determine if the user's browser supports cookies.
5 months 27 days
This cookie is set by Youtube. Used to track the information of the embedded YouTube videos on a website.